What is a Sun God? The Sun god is typically shown as a magnificent person holding lotus flower in both his hands. He is also riding a chariot pulled by one or more horses typically seven. The seven horses are named after the seven meters of Sanskrit prosody: Gayatri, Brihati, Ushnih, Jagati, Trishtubha, Anushtubha and Pankti. Here is the mythology of the Sun god- birth story and marriage
The Hindu text, Brihat Samhita mentions that Surya should be shown with two hands and also wearing a crown.
His chariot driver is mentioned to be Aruṇa who is seated. He is typically flanked by two females representing the dawn goddesses, Usha and Pratyusha. The goddesses are shown to be shooting arrows, a symbolism for their initiative to challenge darkness.
Birth Story Of Lord Surya
The birth of Surya took place with the creation of the universe through Brahma, the creator god. Brahma created the progenitor Daksa and his wife from the tips of his right and left thumbs respectively. Among the 13 daughters of Daksa and his wife, Aditi was the mother of Surya. A succinct version of how Aditi came to be the mother of Surya follows.
Who is father and mother of Sun god?
Aditi and Kashyap are parents of Sun God.
Aditi was married to Kashyap rishi. She gave birth to twelve sons. These sons were known as the twelve Adityas and their names include Indra, Dhata, Tvashta, Bhaga, Varuna, Mitra, Yama, Savita, Vivasvan (the Sun-God), Pusha, Visnu and Ansuman.
The sage, Kashyap also had other wives who gave birth to many other children including demons and also other species of animals and birds.
There was a conflict between the demons and the gods. Brahma allowed only the gods to have all the shares of sacrificial offerings of the Yajnas and the demons were upset about it. This leads to a war between the demons and the deities.
The deities lost in war and were forced to give up their abode in heaven and also their portion of the Yajnas. Aditi was deeply moved due to the sufferings of her sons and she seek help from the Sun-God, Vivasvan.
the Sun-God was pleased by the devotion of Aditi and gave a boon. Aditi requested that the Sun-God be born as a son to her and a brother to her children so that he could defeat the powerful demons. It will help her children to restore their rightful place in heaven and also their allotment of the Yajnas.
The Sun-God granted her request but mentioned that he was far too powerful to be born to her in his fullness and granted her a thousandth part of his essence to be born as a son. So like wise, the Sun-God was born to Aditi.
Then Indra declared war against the demons and it was seen that Martanda (the Sun-God) turned the demons to ashes merely by looking at them. In the end the gods regained their place in heaven and partook of the Yajnas once again.
Lord Surya Seven Horses Names
The seven horses names of Surya:
The Wife Of Surya
Chhaya or Chaya or goddess of shadow, is the consort of Surya, the Hindu sun god. She is the reflection of Saranyu (Sandhya), the first wife of Surya. Chhaya was born from the shadow of Sandhya and replaced Sandhya when Sandhya was unable to bear the heat of Surya.
Chhaya is usually described as the mother of Shani, the planet Saturn; goddess Tapti, the personification of river Tapti; and a son Savarni Manu, who is destined to be the next and eighth Manu. Bhagavata Purana tells that Chhaya was a sister of Sandhya and the daughter of the divine architect Vishwakarma.
Story of Devi Sandhya and Chhaya
As per Vishnu purana, Sandhya was unable to bear intense heat of Surya after giving birth to three children. She retires to the forest to practice tedious austerities in form of a mare, leaving her shadow-image Chhaya, for her husband and progeny.
Surya mistakes Chhaya for Sandhya and Chhaya gave birth to three children. Chhaya gives birth to Shani, Savarni Manu and Tapti.
However, Chhaya became partial to her own children and gave step treatment to progeny of Sandhya. Yama, suspected the behavior of Chhaya and offended her. Chhaya also cast a curse on Yama which revealed more clearly that Chhaya was not the true Sandhya. However, after knowing the truth from Chhaya, Surya finds Sandhya and brings her back.
Children of Surya Dev
In general context, Surya had three offspring with Sanjna. These were Vaivasvata (one of the 14 original men or Manu), Yama (god of the dead), and Yami (goddess of the Yamuna river).
On the other hand, In Matsya Purana, the children of Chhaya are named as Savarni Manu a son and two daughters: Tapti and Vishti, who was dark blue colour and a personification of Kaal (Time or Death) and who dwells in Narak.
While in Markandeya Purana, Devi Chhaya had three sons: Shani, Savarni Manu and Revanta, the divine master of horses. Kurma Purana describes only Savarni Manu as her son.